AAC Block Production Line

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AAC Block are made of flyash (limeslag or sand) as main raw material,cement and lime as cementing materials,and aluminum powder as foaming agent. The main forming procedures are Material crushing,measuring,mixing,pouring,curing,cutting and steaming. As a new wall body material with the characteristics of light weight, heat preservation,energy saving,waste recycling, environmental protection and convenience etc, AAC Light-weight block is now emphatically promoted by the world.
 
1.Overview of the AAC Blocks
The AAC Blocks are the new type building material with the features of light, heat retaining and insulated which use the Siliceous (like flyash) and Calcareous materials (like cement and lime) as the main raw material, formed after batching, pouring, cutting and steaming. This block has the history of producing and application over 60 years; it is one of the sophisticated and new-type building materials both in the producing technology and the application, because of the good performance of light, heat retaining, and it is complementary to the common concrete blocks, so it has been widely used in the non-bearing wall in industrial construction and the civil building.
The AAC Blocks are made of flyash and some limeslag as main raw materials, this will has the positive significance in protect the environment and saving land recourse. And the coefficient of heat conductivity of the AAC Blocks is just about 1/4~1/5 of the clays bricks’, and it has the good performance of heat retaining and insulated and it is the building materials for Green energy-saving and it is also in conformation with China’s strategy of sustainable development.
 
2.Main features of the AAC Blocks
Light Weight: the dry density is about 1/3 of the Clay brick’s, and 1/4 of the concrete block’s, can effectively reduce the weight and lower the difficulty of construction of the soft foundation, reduce the investment of the foundation and the construction about 27%, and save 5% of the comprehensive cost.
Heat Preservation: The performance of the thickness of 40mm can be equal to the clay bricks with the thickness of 240mm, and the coefficient of heat conductivity can be 0.1w/m.k, and it is a kind of good materials for wall with the feature of self heat-insulation
Soundproof: There are many tiny air holes inside, so it has the double performance of soundproof and acoustic absorption, the weight-counted sound insulation quantity can be 40-50dB for different products, thickness and overcoating.
Fireproof: The AAC blocks and the raw material are all inorganic matter, so they will never burn and will not produce the poisonous gas at high temperature. The duration of fire resistance of 100mm thickness of the wall can be 4 hours so that to meet the requirement for the firewall of the building fire protection.
Anti-permeability: there are many independent closed air holes inside with the diameter 1-2 mm, can effectively prevent the diffusion of the water. The anti-permeability will be 85% higher than the clay brick wall when using the ordinary painting for the wall.
Strong Rigidity: The precise dimension, the implement of six surface cutting and the using of thin layer of the mortar will increase the strength utilization coefficient. The building body strength can be 80% of the strength of the block itself, while the clay brick can be only 30%.
Economy: The lower light will reduce the investment of the foundation and the construction. Can do the plaster on the surface directly thus to save the cost on the materials and the labor. And the small thickness will increase the building utilization coefficient and raise the usable area. The good performance of the heat retaining will considerably lower the cost.
Precise Dimension: Our advanced manufacturing technique and the equipments make sure the precision of the dimension with the error ±1.5mm in length, width and height. It is far above the requirements of the superior products in the national standard.
Easy construction: One AAC finished block can be equal to many clay bricks, and it can be continuous masonry without the limitation of 1m of the height at one time so that to increase the speed of masonry and save the cost in labor. The blocks are easy to be processed, and is able to saw, drill, nail, hang and hollow out, convenient for hiding pipes and wires and secondary decoration.
Large void and high water absorption rate: it is not allowed to masonry under the standard height of the building with the error ±0.00 or being soaked by long term or at the alternate site of dry and wet. Need to use the common blocks to masonry the basic part and the height should not be less than 200mm. There should be three layers of the waterproof mortar in the normal brickwork, and there should have the waterproof mortar between the brickwork and the AAC blocks.
Low intensity: Normally, it is used in the non-bearing wall, the blocks will have the situation of broken corner or breakdown when transferring thus will increase and waste the investment of the materials.
The surface is easy to lather. It is not easy to bond with the mortar. Need to do the sgraffito treatment and add the dula fiber into the mortar brfore plastering the inner brickwall and priming the outside brickwall.
 
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Raw Material Treatment

AAC block production line needs to pulverize the siliceous material such as sand, fly ash, etc. According to raw materials and the process characteristics, the grinding process could be classified into: dry grinding into powder, wet grinding with water into slurry and mixed grinding with lime. Mixed grinding also could be classified into dry mix for preparing plastic material and wet grinding with water. Wet grinding technology with water is to improve the characteristics of fly ash or sand, which is called “hydrothermal ball smashing” Generally, most of limes are lump limes, and should be crushed and grinded. Gypsum ( plaster) generally will not be grinded alone, commonly add with fly ash or lime, and to be grinded with the same miller of lime. Other auxiliary materials and chemicals are often prepared in advance.
Raw material preparation process is the preparatory process of ingredient, which is to meet the technological requirements and processing of raw materials and the store process before completing the ingredients for the entire production can be carried out smoothly, product quality can meet the requirements of the most basic aspects of the process have a direct impact.
(1)Jaw Crusher
In order to make the material meets the technological requirements of aerated concrete blocks, generally calcareous and siliceous materials should be grinded. Before entering the mill, some bulk materials should be crushed firstly, in order to achieve feed size required to enter the secondary ball mill grinding.
a. Operating Principle:
During running, the motor through the belts driven eccentric shaft rotation, so that the movable jaw periodically closes and leaves the fixed jaw, and thus the materials are squeezed, rubbed, grinded, so that the materials are smaller , gradually falling from discharge port.
b. Features:
The crusher has characteristics such as: large crushing ratio, high yield, uniform particle size, simple structure, reliable operation, easy maintenance, economic cost etc.
c. Main Technical Specification
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Model Max.Feed Size(mm) Adjusting range of output (cm) Capacity (t/h) Power (kW) Weight (t) Overall Dimension (L×W×H)(mm)
PE-150×250 125 10-40 1-5 5.5-7.5 0.8 875×758×850
PE-250×400 210 20-60 5-20 15 2.8 1450×1335×1310
PE-400×600 340 40-120 15-50 30 6.8 1565×1732×1586
PE-350×750 300 20-100 25-70 30-37 7.3 1810×1900×1730
PEX-150×750 125 10-40 10-40 15 3.5 1430×1635×1108
PEX-250×750 210 25-60 15-30 22 4.5 1667×1545×1020
PEX-250×1000 210 25-60 20-52 30-37 6.5 1580×1964×1380
PEX-250×1200 210 25-60 25-60 37 7.7 1580×2164×1430
PEX-300×1300 250 20-80 30-90 55 11 1750×2320×1730

(2)Bucket Elevator

Bucket elevator is indispensable equipment in AAC production line. It is used to carry lime, gypsum and other materials which have been pulverized by jaw crusher into storage silos, which is the preparation for raw material mixing.
a. Operating Principle:
NE bucket elevator consists of operation parts (bucket and traction belt), upper parts with transmission drum, bottom parts with tension roller, middle enclosure, actuating device, and braking device etc. It is used to convey powder with loose density material(ρ<1.5t/m ), particulate or block such as coal, sand ,breeze, cement and broken ore etc .
b. Main Features:
NE Bucket elevator adopts the flow-through feeding way. Material will be conveyed to the top via Plate-Link chain, then discharge under the effect of gravity. Our elevators are Multi-Standard, high production capacity and low energy –consumption. It is designed as totally-enclosed with slow-running chain, which can avoid the material returning, so no power wasted. Meanwhile, there is no noise pollution while it works.
c. Main Technical Specification:
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Model Productivity (m³ /h) Working Speed (m/s) Mainshaft Speed r.p.m Particle Size (mm) Bucket Specification
Volume(L) Width(mm) Bucket Distance(mm)
NE15 15 0.5 15.54 <40 2.5 250 203
NE30 32 0.5 16.45 <50 7.8 300 305
NE50 60 0.5 16.45 <50 15.7 300 305
NE100 110 0.5 14.13 <70 35 400 400
NE150 170 0.5 14.13 <70 52.5 600 400
NE200 210 0.5 10.9 <100 84.6 600 500
(3)Belt Conveyor
Belt conveyor is very important transportation equipment in AAC production line, used to tra- nsport fly ash, sand, lime and other raw materials, is the most efficient continuous conveyor eq- uipment, conveyor belt moves by friction-drive principles. Featured with big capacity, long transmission, smooth transportation, materials and conveyor no relative motion, less noise, simple structure, easy maintenance, less energy consumption and standardized components.

a. Main Technical Data for Belt Conveyor:
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Belt Width(mm) Length(m)  Power(kW) Speed(m/s) Capacity(t/h)
500 ≤12 / 3 12-20 / 4-5.5 20-30 / 5.5-7.5 0.8-1.0 50-191
650 ≤12 / 4 12-20 / 5.5 20-30 / 7.5-11 0.8-1.60 80-250

(4)Ball Mill

Raw materials grinding is an important step in the AAC block production. Lime, gypsum, sand, slag and other materials could be fully mixed and interact only after powder grinding, then to make products strength qualified. Ball mill is the key equipment of the material smashing.
a. Working Principle of Ball Mill:
Ball mill is a horizontal cylinder rotating device, outer gear, two cabins, lattice-type ball mill. Raw materials are evenly fed into the first cabin through hollow shaft screw. There is ladder liner or corrugated liner inside the first cabin, and different size steel ball. When ball mill working, the cabin generates centrifugal force and brings the ball to a certain height and falls then pound and grinds the materials. After coarse grinding in first cabin, raw materials will come to the second cabin through the single-compartment plate. There are flat lining and steel ball in the second cabin, and will grind raw materials father. Finally, powder will be discharged through the discharge grate plate to complete the grinding operation.
b. Structure features of ball mill:
The machine consists of feeding part, discharging part, turning part and driving part (reducer, small transmission gear, motors, electrical control) and other major components. This machine uses outer gear, hollow shaft support. Hollow shaft adopted steel casting, and removable liner, turning gearwheel machining adopted casting hobbling, wear liners was embedded in the cylinder (there are two kinds of liners: rubber liner & steel liner, the rubber one in light, low noise, wearable, good sealing, generally preferred. ) This machine has good wear resistance as well as smoothly & reliable running.
c. Main Technical Data of Ball Grinder :
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Model (m) Φ1.5×5.7 Φ1.83×7 Φ2.2×7 Φ2.4×8 Φ2.6×13
Capacity(T/h) 3.5-4 8-12 15-17 19-22 28-31
Max input(mm) ≤25 ≤25 ≤25 ≤25 ≤25
Grinding Body 11T 21T 30T 40T 78T
Power(kW) 130 245 380 475 1000
Weight (t) 23 36 49 68 150

(5)Wasted-Slurry Mixing Tank (Ahead the Ball Mill)

Wasted-Slurry mixing tank consists of fixing platform, ladder, barrier, mixer and tank. Usually the wasted slurry from ferry cart and all other wasted material should be mixed with water in the tank. The mixed material will be recycled used with the original slurry.
(6)Lime, Cement Silo

The silo role is used for storage of materials, it’s with air cushion or vibration motor; according to volume, the specifications are: 100m ³, 200m ³, 300m ³. They can be configured according to the demand of select lines.
二、Dosing And Pouring
The dosing are equipments which are weighted finished batching materials and all raw materials ,adjusted temperature ,concentration and added material as well, then according to the requirement of process, feeding material into mixer at one time. Dosing is a key link of aerated concrete process, related to the raw material between the percentage of active ingredients, in relation to the fluidity and viscosity of slurry is appropriate whether aluminum powder suitable for gas and green body hardening normally.
Pouring process is the unique production process of aerated concrete which is different from other kinds of concrete. Pouring process is the batching process after the measurement and the necessary adjustment put into mixer to mix the materials, made to process the stipulated time, temperature, density of slurry, through the pouring hole of mixer poured into a mould. Slurry makes a series of physical and chemical reactions in the mould and produces bubble, and the bubble makes the slurry inflated, thickened and hardened. Pouring process is an important process for affecting pore structure; the dosing process and pouring process constitute a core part of the production process of AAC block.
Pre-Curing process is mainly the process after pouring slurry to continue to be thickened and hardened.
(1)Weighing System

The physical states of raw materials for aerated concrete are liquid type, slurry type, powder type, powder aluminum and lump aluminum. Different materials have different weighing scales, such as lime scale, cement weighing hopper, slurry weighing tank etc.Material will be precisely measured by the automatic measuring system.
a. Lime & Cement Weighing Hopper:

Used to weigh cement and lime, and then convey them into pouring mixer.
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Specifications(mm) Length of Screw Conveyor(mm)
Diameter of Screw Conveyor Speed of Screw Conveyor(r/m) Weight(t) Power(kW)
Capacity(T/h) 3.5-4 8-12 15-17 19-22 28-31
b. Slurry Weighing Tank:
Used to weigh slurry and then put it into pouring mixer.
Specifications(mm) Weight(T)
Ф2000×3000 0.8
c. Water Measuring Tank:
Water measuring and Automatic transf- erring water to the slurry mixer.
Specifications(mm) Weight(T)
Ф2000×3000 0.2

(2)Aluminum Powder Mixer

Consist of the cylinder, a bracket and a pneumatic butterfly valve (double signal output device). It is used to mix aluminum powder.
(3)Pouring Mixer
A pouring mixer is consist of mixing barrel, mixing shaft, transmission mechanism, diversion device, nozzle device and so on, which is the main equipment of aerated concrete plant. Pouring mixer is used to mix slurry, cement, lime, gypsum and powder aluminum with certain proportion, after mixed uniformly and full reaction, then pour mixed slurry into mould frame in time.
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Specifications(m³ ) shaft Rotation Speed(r/m) Power(kW) Weight(t)
3.8 560 37 5.6
5.8 560 45 6.5
(4)Pouring Ferry Cart

Pouring ferry cart is the essential equipment of autoclaved section in the AAC block production line which for dragging. It is consists of the cart frame, drive and positioning mechanism. The cart frame is welded by section steel. Drive is consist of reducer, coupling, shaft, the driving wheel and driven wheel. Ferry cart has the char- acteristics of strong power in dragging and pushing, and stopping. when quickly moving, it could position and connect accurately, and could be frequency slow running when full loading, also could be frequency fast running when empty loading.
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Ferry cart specifications Load moving speed (frequency) The distance from cart floor to top Cart track length
m t m/min mm mm
4.2×1.2 6 20 555 3540-5000
4.8×1.2 8 20 555 3540-5000

(5)Mould Frame, Side Plate
Moulds of AAC block production line are divided into mould frame and side plate, which is an important equi- pment of product forming. The mixed raw materials through pouring mixer poured into mould, gasing and pre- curing, after solidify, demoulding, then the green block can be cutted. The mould frame and side plate can contain slurry, pre-curing, gasing, solidify after combination. At the same time, side plates take green blocks to cutting machine for cutting, and group into Curing Cart , then move into the autoclave.
The mould frame has good stiffness, easy demoulding, no leakage, and has good interchangeability.
The specifications are 4200 x 1200 x 600mm, 4800 x 1200 x 600mm;。
The side plate has good stiffness, not easy to deformed, durable, with good interchangeability.
The specifications are :4200X600 ,4800X600
三、Turning &Cutting
Turing crane and Cutting Machine are the two main equipment in AAC Block production plant,which are used for Block Cake cutting and Shape processing. The Turning & Cutting technology has the features of: Bulk Molding, Flexible Shape& Size, and Massive Mechanization production.
(1)Turning Crane

Turning crane consists of hanger, rings, rotary lock, and rigging shackle etc. It is used for block demoulding and transferring.
Turning crane will overturn the block of 90°in air. Then demoulding will subsequently be done. The seperated side plate will combine with the returned Mould Frame for recycling slurry pouring.。
(2)Cutting Machine

It is consist of vertical cutting machine and horizontal cutting machine. After the pouring Aerated concrete will become a formed cake after pre-curing. The cake will be cut into the exact size according to user’s requirement.
Working Principle:
After demoulding, the Side Plate with block cake will be transferred and fixed on Cutting Cart, which will be driven by Motor. Then the cake will move to the cutting machine for Vertical and Horizontal cutting. When cakes arrived at horizontal cutting machine, the Side Plate with Cake will be uplifted by lifting device. Cutting cart will turn back to the start position and prepared for another transportation while Horizontal cutting. After Horizontal cutting, the Liftingdevice will load the Side Plate with Cake on another Cutting Cart. Then the cake will be moved to Vertical cutting Machine for vertical processing.
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Specification Cake Size After cutting Cutting Cycle Cutting Capacity Cutting Accuracy Power
m m Min/Mould m³/year   kW
4.0 4×1.2×0.6 5 >100,000 3、1.5、1.5 20
4.8 4×1.2×0.6 6 >200,000 3、1.5、1.5 22

(3)Tilting &Grouping Crane
After cutting, Tilting &Grouping crane will separate the Bottom and Top waste by tilting block cake. And then will hoist and transfer the cake for grouping,
(4)Grouping Crane
Grouping Crane will vertically move the Cake with side plate via the chain. Chain is drived via the Oil Cylinder and the crane will be horizontally moved at the function of Gear motor. This is how the cake moves and groups.
四、Finished Product

The block cake will be cured in the autoclave. It is the last working procedure which will directly affect the quality of finished block.
As the automation improvement, block separating and packing system are also commonly used. After the drying, AAC Blocks move out of autoclaves, though the process of hoisting, separating, and packing, they could be transferred to finish –products area by forklift
(1)Curing Cart

Curing cart consist of fame and wheel. It is used for transferring the block in and out of the Autoclave, which is dedicated transpor- tation cart during production. It sent the cut green block into autoclave for curing, and move out to finish-products area after curing.
(2)Autoclave

Being the core equipment in the production line, Autoclave is used to cure the Block under high pressure and temperature.
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Model Highest Pressure (Mpa) Working Pressure (Mpa) Designed Temperature (℃) Working Temperatur (℃) Working Medium Door Opening
Φ2×21 1.4 1.3 195 198 Saturate Steam Upward Opening
Φ2×26 1.4 1.3 195 198
Φ2×31 1.4 1.3 195 198
Φ2.68×31 1.6 1.5 201 204

(3)Finished-block Clamp

Finished-block clamp are equipped at special crane. The walking and lifting of clamp both rely on the crane. The lifting is oriented by Guiding Frame, which is stable and accurate. It is specially used for moving finished blocks from side plate for final packing.
(4)Mobile Separator

Separator is used to separate the finished block from layer to layer. Our separator will automatically do the working and group the finished products.
(5)Automatic Cuber Crane

Cuber Crane will cuber the Finished Products after the Separating process. It will divide the finished products stack by stack. Thereafter, the tank-type conveyor will move the stacked block for packing.
(6)Automatic Pallet Provider

Equiped with Block Clamping system and Tank-Type conveyor.Efficiently and Stably providing the Pallet for production.
(7)Tank-Type Conveying and Packing System

Finished Block will be packed after the separating and stacking. The Packed Blocks will be transferred to finished products via forklift.
(8)Boiler

Boiler is used to provide heat energy and steam for autoclave to guarantee the interior high pressure and temperature, which ensure the block to complete the hydration reaction for qualified AAC block.
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